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Голицынский Ю.Б. Great Britain. Великобритания

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EEK 81’2 1*trtt-922

Part 1. Geographical Position.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and North- ern Irelandr is situated on the British Isles2 — a large group of islands lying off the north-western coast of Europes and separated from the continent by the English Channela and the Strait of Dovers in the south and the North Sea6 in the east.

‘ The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irelgnd

Ide ju’nartrd’kr4demav’grert’brltn end’nc:6en’atelend]

O6re4zxtinnoe KopoJIeBcrBo Benvrco6prararuvr u Cenepnofi

‘ the British Isles [‘bltrJ’arlz] BpratancKrre ocrpoBa

the English Channel [‘4qlrJ’tJrnl] rpoJ’II/IB JIa Manur

the Strait of Dover [strbtt cv’douve] —

‘t the North Sea [‘nc:0’si:] Ceaepnoe Mope

The lsle of Wight

The British Isles consist of two large islands — Great

Britain and Ireland — separated by the Irish Seal, and a lot of small islands, the main of which are the Isle of

Wigfrt’ in the English Channel, Angleseaa and the Isle of ftann in the Irish Sea, the Hebridesb — a group of

islands off the north-western coast of Scotland6 ‘ and t*o grorrps of islands lying to the north of Scotland:

tft» d»m»y Islands? and the Shetland Islands8 ‘

Historically the territory of the United Kingdom is divided into four parts: Englande, Scotland’ Waleslo

and Northern Ireland.

The total area of the united Kingdom is 244 square kilometres.

the Irish Sea [‘alarrJ’si:]

the Isle of Wight [iatl av’watt]

the»Isle of nnut

the Hebrides [‘hebrrdi:z]

the Shetlancl Is

1. Where is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland situated?

2. Which waters separate the British Isles from the continent of Europe?

3. What islands do the British Isles consist of?

4. Which four parts is the territory of the United Kingdom historically divided into?

5. What is the total area of the United Kingdom?

Great Britain is situated in the temperate zone of

Europe. The nature of Great Britain is greatly affected by the sea: there is no place situated more than 100-120 km from the seashore, in the northern parts only 40-60 km.

The territory of Great Britain can be divided into three natural regions:

1) Scotland with highland and upland relief and coniferous and mixed forests;

2) Wales and mountainous England with upland considerably cut by ravines and valleys and covered with meadows, moorlandr and cultivated farmland, with patches of broadleaf forest;

3) South-east England with plain landscape, fer-

tile soils, the predominance of cultivated farmland, with patches of broadleaf forest.

1. What natural zone is the United Kingdom situated in?

I moorland [‘mualend] — nycrorub, rropocrrrag BepecKoM

2. What factor is the nature of Great Britain af-

3. What natural regions can the territory of Great

Britain be divided into?

The coastline of Great Britain is greatly indented, especially in the west and north-west where the moun- tains come close to the coast’ The coasts of Scotland’ as well as the coasts of the Hebrides’ the Orkney Islands and the Shetland Islands, are cut by numer- ous fiords. In the south and east the land gradually slopes down towards the sea, and the coasts are sandy ani gentle, here and there interrupted by the ends of

hill-ianges, which form low cliffs’

The coast of Britain

1. Why is the coastline of Great Britain especially greatly indented in the west and north-west?

2. Where are fiords especially numerous?

3. How do the southern and eastern coasts of Great Britain differ from the western and north-west- ern coasts?

The general slope of the land is from north-west to south-east.

The mountains cover the greater part of northern, western and middle Great Britain. Th.ey can be divid- ed into the following groups:

1) The Highlands of Scotlandl occupy most of the land to the north-west of a line drawn from Glasgow2 to Aberdeen3. Two parts of the Highlands — the North-western Highlandsa and the Grampiansb are separated by a narrow valley, through which — runs the Caledonian Canalo. At the south-western end of the Highlands rises Ben NevisT, 1343 m, the highest mountain of the British Isles.

2) The Central Plain of Scotland8 separates the Highlands from the Southern Uplands of Scot-

‘ The Highlands of Scotland |harlcndz ov’skotlendl — ceBepnan BbrconoropEafl qacrb TTTor;ranAran

2 Glasgow [‘glo:sgou] — l.rasro

‘ Aberdeen [,rcbo’di:rr] — E6ep4rEu

I tl-re North-western Higlilands [‘nr:0’u,cstcn’harlondz] Cenepoaarra.quafl qacrb BbrcoKoropHofi ITlotnaugltr —

‘ the Grarnpians [‘gricnrprenz] — fparvrnlraHcnrle ropbl

‘ the Caledonian Canal [.kclr’d:rrrlcn kc’nrrl] Ka.ne4onctir.ul xaHan

Plain of Scotland [‘sentrcl’plcrn cv’skrtlond] —

landl. The Southern Uplands and the Pennines2 ‘ which stretch in the north-south direction across the north- ern and middle parts of England, form a practically

continuous -«;;.o|fiv-ttt group .t*ttole . of Wales is occupied bv the

Cumbrian.d. Th» highest peak of the Cumbrians is

Snowdona, 1085 m.

The south-eastern part of England is lowland’in- terrupted in places by low chalk ridges’

1. What is the general slope of the land in Great

2. Which three groups can the mountains be divided

3. Where are the Highlands of Scotland situated?

4. Which are the two parts of the Highlands? What

are theY seParated bY?

5. Which is thl highest mountain of the British Isles?

How high is it? Can you show it on the map?

6. Where are the Souihern Uplands of Scotland?

How are they separated from the Highlands?

7. Where are the Plnnines situated? In what direc- tion do theY stretch?

8. Where are the Cumbrians?

9. Which is the highest peak of the Cumbrians? How

high is it? Find it on the maP’

10. What is the relief of the south-eastern part of

the Southern Uplands of Scotland [‘s’rr6an’nplendz

Great Britain enjoys the humid and mild marine

West-Coast climatel with warm winters and cool summers and a lot of rainfall throughout the year.

The prevailing winds blow from the south-west.

As these winds blow from the ocean, they are mild in winter and cool in surnmer, and are heavily charged with moisture at ali times. As they approach the moun- tainous ar()as near the rvest coasts, they rise up tire nlountain siopes. Their tenperahure drotrrs, which canses condensation of rnoisture in the form of rain.

Therefor:e the wettest parts trf Britain are those areas where high mountains lie near the west coast: the western I

North Wales. The eastern part of Brilain is said to be in the rain-shadow, as the winds lose most of their rnoisture in tlieir passage over the highlands of the

All parts of the British Isles receive rain at any tinre of the year. Still autumn and winter are the

wettest seasons, except in the Tharnesridistrict, where

rnost r:ain falls in the sunrmer half of the -vear. Ox- fordr, for example, has 29 per cent of its rain in

surrnler and only.22 per cent in winter.

As to ternperature, Great Britain has warnrer win- ters than any other district in the sarle latitude. It is

‘ the humid and mild marine West-Coast clirnate [‘hjumrdcud’rnarld rnc’ri:n’westkoust’klarrnrt] BirarrcHbrfi ra ltnrxnii uropcrcoir

2 the Lake f)istrict [‘lerk’drstnkt] Oedpuufi rpafi

2 the Thames [temz] — Tevrsa —

I Oxford [‘oksfcd] — OrccQop4

due in large measure to the prevalence of mild south- west winds. Another factor is the Gulf Streaml, which flows from the Gulf of Mexico2 and brings much warmth from the equatorial regions to north-west- ern Europe.

1. What climate does Great Britain enjoy? What are the characteristic features of this climate?

2. Which are the prevailing winds in Great Brit- ain? What do they bring to the country?

3. Which are the wettest parts of Great Britain? whv?

4. The eastern side of Great Britain is said to be in the rain-shadow. What does it mean?

5. Which are the wettest seasons in Great Britain?

6. Why does Great Britain have warmer winters than any other district in the same latitude?

Part 6. lnland Waters.

The rivers of Britain are short; their direction and character are determined by the position of the moun- tains.

Most of the rivers flow in the eastward direction since the west coast is mountainous.

Due to the humid climate and abundant rainfall, the water level in the rivers is always high. The riv- ers seldom freeze in winter, most of them remain ice- free. Many of the rivers are joined together by ca- nals. This system of rivers and canals provides a good means of cheap inland water transport.

I tlie Gulf Stream [‘g,rlF.stri:m] — fom(rcrpuvr

2 the Gulf of Mexico [‘meksrkou] — Merccnnancrcurl saJrrrB

erpool6, and the ClydeT in Scoiland, which flows west across the Southern Uplands and on.which the port

of Glasgow is situated.

owing to the fact that British lakes are rather smail

and have no outlets, they afford limited economic possibilities in the system of navigable waterways.

But most of them, especially those situated in ihe counties of Cumberlands, Westmorlande and north

I Severn [‘sevanj p. Cenepn

channel [‘brrsteltJrenl] — Epzcron’cxutrr BaJrrrB

» the Tyne [tarn] p. Taftn

I the Trent [tr.ent] — — p.

» the Mersey [‘mc:zr] — ‘ Liverpool [‘hvopul] — p’

and deep lakes, ravines, waterfalls and green mead- ows. The Lake District is one of the most popular holiday districts in Great Britain.

1. Why do most of the rivers in Great Britain flow in the eastward direction?

2. Why is the water level in British riyers always htgh?

3. Do British rivers freeze in winter?

4. Many rivers in Great Britain are joined together by canals. What does the system of rivers and canals provide?

5. Are British rivers navigable for ocean ships?

6. What prevents the formation of deltas at the mouths of rivers?

7. Where are most of the large sea ports situated?

8. Which are the most important rivers in Great

9. What are the British lakes famous for? Where are most of them situated?

10. Give a description of the Lake District.

Part 7. Vegetation.

In the mountainous regions of Great’Britain the

vegetation is represented by coniferous and mixed forests with the predominance of pine, oak and birch. Many parts of highland Britain have only

thin, poor soils. As a result, there are large stretches of moorland in the Highlands of Scotland, the Pen- nines, the Lake District, the mountains of Wales and in some parts of north-east and south-west

England. In most of these areas the farmers have

cultivated only the varley lands and the plains where the soils are deeper and richer.

With its mild climate and varied soils, Britain has a rich natural vegetation. When the islands were first settled, oak forests probably covered the greater part of the lowland. In the course of the centuries, nearly all the forests have been cut down,

and now woodlands occupy only about Z per cent of the surface of the country. The greatest density of woodland occurs in the north and east of scoiland, in some parts of south-east England and on the

Welsh border. The most common trees are oak, beech, ash and elm, and in Scoiland also pine and birch.

Midland Britain appears to be well wooded be_ cause of the numerous hedgesr and isolated trees.

Hedges are a typical feature of countryside land_

scape in England. Farming land is divided inio fields by hedges or stone walls. Most of countryside p»S_

land is agricultural land, about a third of *hi»h i. arable, and the rest is pasture and meadow.

1. What is the vegetation represented by in the mountainous regions of Great Britain?

2. Where are stretches of moorland to be found?

Why are these places covered with moorland?

3. Why does Great Britain have a rich natural veg_ etation?

4. What has happened to nearly all the forests? What parts of Great Britain do most woods still remain in?

Great Britain / Великобритания. Страноведение

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Great Britain / Великобритания. Страноведение

Данная книга представляет собой пособие по страноведению, которое знакомит учащихся с основными.

Great Britain / Великобритания. Страноведение

Данная книга представляет собой пособие по страноведению, которое знакомит учащихся с основными.

Great Britain/Великобритания

Данная книга представляет собой пособие по страноведению, которое знакомит учащихся с основными.

Great Britain/Великобритания

Данная книга представляет собой пособие по страноведению, которое знакомит учащихся с основными.

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